## ATM346

**Dynamic Meteorology**

**Syllabi**

**1. Overview and Review**

- structure of the atmosphere
- vertical and horizontal scales of the atmospheric motions
- vector, scalar product, cross product and their differentiations
- gradient, divergence, and vorticity
- local and total derivatives

**2. External forces of the atmospheric motion**

- gravity versus gravitation
- pressure gradient force
- friction
- Coriolis force

**3. Equations of atmospheric motions on the rotating Earth**

- the momentum equations
- mass continuity law
- first thermodynamic law in the atmosphere
- closet set of controlling equations

**4. Simplification to the dynamic equations**

- local coordinate system
- hydrostatic equilibrium
- P, sigma coordinate systems
- controlling equations in the p-system

**5. Horizontal motions under balanced forces**

- geostrophic flow
- effect of friction
- thermal wind relation
- gradient flow
- cyclostrophic flow
- inertial flow

**6. Circulation, vorticity, and divergence theorems**

- circulation theorem
- physical interpretation of circulation theorem
- vorticity theorem
- divergence theorem
- applications

**7. Viscosity and turbulence and the Ekman atmospheric boundary layer**

- atmospheric turbulence
- turbulent kinetic energy
- momentum equations in the boundary layer
- the Ekman spiral

**8. Simple wave theory using the shallow water equations on the rotating Earth**

- the perturbation method
- properties of waves
- simple wave types
- gravity waves
- Rossby waves

**9. The quasi-geostrophic theory**

- the quasi-geostropic approximation
- quasi-geostrophic prediction
- the omega equation
- indealized model of a baroclinic atmospheric disturbance