ATM346
Dynamic Meteorology

Syllabi

1. Overview and Review

  • structure of the atmosphere
  • vertical and horizontal scales of the atmospheric motions
  • vector, scalar product, cross product and their differentiations
  • gradient, divergence, and vorticity
  • local and total derivatives

2. External forces of the atmospheric motion

  • gravity versus gravitation
  • pressure gradient force
  • friction
  • Coriolis force

3. Equations of atmospheric motions on the rotating Earth

  • the momentum equations
  • mass continuity law
  • first thermodynamic law in the atmosphere
  • closet set of controlling equations

4. Simplification to the dynamic equations

  • local coordinate system
  • hydrostatic equilibrium
  • P, sigma coordinate systems
  • controlling equations in the p-system

5. Horizontal motions under balanced forces

  • geostrophic flow
  • effect of friction
  • thermal wind relation
  • gradient flow
  • cyclostrophic flow
  • inertial flow

6. Circulation, vorticity, and divergence theorems

  • circulation theorem
  • physical interpretation of circulation theorem
  • vorticity theorem
  • divergence theorem
  • applications

7. Viscosity and turbulence and the Ekman atmospheric boundary layer

  • atmospheric turbulence
  • turbulent kinetic energy
  • momentum equations in the boundary layer
  • the Ekman spiral

8. Simple wave theory using the shallow water equations on the rotating Earth

  • the perturbation method
  • properties of waves
  • simple wave types
  • gravity waves
  • Rossby waves

9. The quasi-geostrophic theory

  • the quasi-geostropic approximation
  • quasi-geostrophic prediction
  • the omega equation
  • indealized model of a baroclinic atmospheric disturbance