Data Integration

Zhang, M. H., J. L. Lin, R. T. Cederwall, J. J. Yio, and S. C. Xie, 2001: Objective analysis of the ARM IOP data: method and
sensitivity. Monthly Weather Review. 129, 295-311.

Zhang, M. H., et al., 2001: Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System, DOE ARM Technical Report, 16pp.  ARM-TR-005 (http://www.arm.gov/docs/documents/tech_reports/index.html).

Yu, R., M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess,  1999: Analysis of atmospheric energy budget: a consistency study of available datasets.  J. Geophys. Res., 108, 9655-9661.

Zhang, M. H., and J. L. Lin, 1997: Constrained variational analysis of sounding data based on column-integrated budgets of
mass, heat, moisture and momentum: approach and application to ARM measurements,  J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1503-1524.

Modeling Studies

Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, C. S. Bretherton, J. J. Hack, and P. J. Rasch, 2002: A modified formulation of fractional stratiform condensation rate in the Community Atmospheric Model CAM2.  J. Geophys. Res.  Accepted (pdf file).

Xie et al., and M. H. Zhang, 2002: Intercomparison and evaluation of cumulus parameterization under summertime midlatitude continental conditions.   Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 128, 1095-1135.

Xu et al., and M. H. Zhang, 2002: An intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the ARM summer 1997 IOP data.  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorology Society, 128, 593-624.

Xie, S. C., and M. H. Zhang, 2000: Impact of the convection triggering function on single-column model simulations.  J.
Geophys. Res., 105, D11, 14,983-14,996.

Ghan S., other co-authors, and M. H. Zhang, 2000: An intercomparison of single-column model simulations of summertime
midlatituide continental convection.  J. Geophys. Res., 105, D2, 2091-2124.

Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, and J. T Kiehl, 1998: Bias of atmospheric shortwave absorption in the NCAR CCM2 and CCM3:
Comparison with monthly ERBE/GEBA measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 8919-8925.

Zhang, M. H., 1996: Implication of the convection-evaporation-wind feedback to surface climate simulation in climate models.
Climate Dynamics, 12, 299-312.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, W. J. Ingram, G. L. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, E. Cohen-Solal, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich,
A. D. Del Genio, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl, H.
Le Treut, K. K.-W Lo, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, M. E.
Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, K. E. Taylor, W. Wang, R. T. Wetherald, 1996: Cloud feedback in
atmospheric general circulation models: an update.  J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12791-12794.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. G. Dutton, B. W. Forgan, D. P. Garber, W. L.Gates, J. J. Hack, E. F.
Harrison, X. Jing, J. T. Kiehl, C. N. Long, J. J. Morcrette, G. L. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. H. Whitlock, D. F.
Young, Y. Zhou, 1995:   Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models.  Science,  267, 496-499.

Zhang, M. H., 1995: Assessment of the SAGE sampling strategy in the derivation of tropospheric water vapor in a general
circulation model.  Geophy. Res. Lett., 22, 1353-1356.

Zhang, M. H., J. T. Kiehl, and J. J. Hack, 1995:  Cloud-radiative feedback as produced by different parameterizations of cloud
emissivity in the NCAR CCM2.  In Climate Sensitivity to Radiative Perturbations: Mechanisms and Validation, Edited by Le
Truet, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 34, 213-228,  Springer-Verlag.

Kiehl, J, T., J. J. Hack, M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess, 1995: Sensitivity of a GCM climate to enhanced shortwave cloud
absorption.  J. Climate,  8, 2200-2212.

Chen, M. H., R. D. Cess, and M. H. Zhang, 1995: Effects of longwave cloud forcing anomalies on the atmospheric response to
equatorial Pacific SST anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 13,791-13810.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, G. L. Potter, V. Alekseev, H. W. Barker, S. Bony, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M.
Deque, M. R. Dix, V. Dymnikov, M. Esch, L. D. Fowler, J. R. Fraser, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, W. J. Ingram, J. T.
Kiehl, Y. Kim, H. Le Treut, X. Z. Liang, B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, M. E.
Schlesinger, P. V. Sporyshev, K. E. Taylor, B. Timbal, E. M. Volodin, W. Wang, W. C. Wang, R. T. Wetherald, 1997:
Comparison of atmospheric general circulation models to satellite observations of the seasonal change in cloud-radiative
forcing. J. Geophys. Res.,  Vol. 102.

Zhang, M. H., J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl  and R. D. Cess, 1994:  Diagnostic study of climate feedback processes in atmospheric
general circulation models. J. Geophy.  Res.,  99,  5525-5537.

Randall, D., R. D. Cess,  J. P. Blanchet, S. Chalita, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, E. Keup, A. A. Lacis, H. Le
Treut, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, P. M. Norris, G. L. Potter, L. Rikus,  E.
Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1994: Analysis of snow feedbacks in fourteen general circulation models.  J.  Geophy. Res.,   99, 20,757-20,771.

Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, T. Y. Kwon, and M. H. Chen, 1994: Approaches of comparison for clear-sky radiative-fluxes from
general circulation models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data. J . Geophy. Res.,  99,  5515-5523.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, and G. L. Potter, H. W. Barker, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. Esch, J. R. Fraser,
V. Galin, W. L. Gates, J. J. Hack, W. J. Ingram, J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, B. J.
McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, D. A. Randall, E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, A. P. Sokolov, P. V. Sporyshev, K. E.
Taylor, W. C. Wang, R. T. Wetherald, 1993: Uncertainties in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models.  Science,  262,  1252-1255.

Randall, D., R. D.Cess,  J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer,  D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, M. Deque, V. Dimnikov, V. Galin, S. J.
Ghan,  A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J. Morcrette, G. L.
Potter, L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin,  J. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M.
Whashington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1992: Intercomparison and  interpretation of surface energy fluxes in
atmospheric general circulation models. J.  Geophys. Res,  97,  3711-3724.

Cess, R. D, G. L. Potter, M. H. Zhang, J. P. Blanchet, S. Chalita, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, V. Dimnikov,
V. Galin, D. Jerrett, E. Keup, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J.
Morcrette, P. M. Norris, D. A. Randall,  L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, J. M. Slingo, A. P.
Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, and I. Yagai, 1991:  Interpretation of snow-climate feedback as
produced by 17 general circulation models.  Science,   253, 888-892.

Cess, R. D., G. L .Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. Del Genio, M. Deque, V. Dimnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J.
Ghan,  J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J.
Morcrette,  L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin,  A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M.
Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1990: Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback
processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models. J.  Geophys. Res.,  95,  16601-16615.

Zeng, Q. C., X. Z. Liang and M. H. Zhang, 1988: Seasonal Abrupt Changes of the General Circulation of Atmosphere and Their
Numerical Simulation. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,  10., 323-333.

Zhang, M. H., 1987: Effects of Tibet Plateau on the Rainy Season Atmospheric Circulation over East Asia. Journal of  the
Nanking Institute of Meteorology,  10, 253-267.
 

Climate Feedback and Process Studies
 

Zhang, M. H., 2001: Cloud-climate feedback: lessons learned from two El Nino events.  In "Frontiers in Climate Modeling" by
Kiehl and Ramanathan.  In press.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, B. A. Wielicki, D. F. Young, X. L. Zhou, and Y. Nikitenko, 2001: the influence of the 1998 El Nino
upon cloud radiative forcing over the Pacific warm pool.  J. Climate, 14, 2129-2137.

Yu, R. C., M. H. Zhang, Y. Yu, and Y. Liu, 2001: Summer monsoon rainfalls over mid-eastern China lagged correlated with
global SSTs.  Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 18, 179-196.

Zhou, X. L., M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, 2001: Tropical cold point tropopause characteristics derived from ECMWF
reanalyses and soundings.  J. Climate, 14, 1823-1838.

Zhou, X. L., M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, 2001: The cooling trend of the tropical cold point tropopause temperatures and its
implications. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1511-1522.
Yu, R., M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess,  1999: Analysis of atmospheric energy budget: a consistency study of available datasets.  J.
Geophys. Res., 108, 9655-9661.

Yu, R., M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess,  1999: Analysis of atmospheric energy budget: a consistency study of available datasets.  J. Geophys. Res., 108, 9655-9661.

Cess, R.D.,  M. H. Zhang, F.P.J. Valero, S.K. Pope, A. Bucholtz, B. Bush, C.S. Zender, and J. Vitko, Jr.  1999:  Absorption of
solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:  Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements.  J. Geophys. Res., 104,
2059-2066.

Lin W. Y., M. H. Zhang, and M. A. Geller, 1998: Diabatic subsidence in the subtropical upper troposphere derived from SAGE
II measurements.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4181-4184.

Valero, P. J., R. D. Cess, M. H. Zhang, S. Pope, A. Bucholtz, B. Bush, J. Vitko, 1997: Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: interpretation of collocated aircraft measurements.  J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29,917-29,927.

Zhang. M. H., R. D. Cess, and X. D. Jing, 1997: Concerning the interpretation of enhanced cloud shortwave absorption using
monthly-mean Earth Radiation Budget Experiemnt/Global Energy Balance Archive measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 102,
25,899 - 25,905.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, Y. Zhou, X. Jing, V. Dvortsov, 1996: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: interpretation of
satellite, surface and aircraft measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23,299-23,309.

Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, S. C. Xie, 1996:  Relationships between sea surface temperatures and cloud-radiative-forcings over
the entire tropical oceans.  J. Climate,  9, 1374-1384.

Cess, R. D., and M. H. Zhang, 1996: How much solar radiation do clouds absorb? Science, 271, 1133-1134.

Cess, R. D., M. H. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. G. Dutton, B. W. Forgan, D. P. Garber, W. L.Gates, J. J. Hack, E. F.
Harrison, X. Jing, J. T. Kiehl, C. N. Long, J. J. Morcrette, G. L. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. H. Whitlock, D. F.
Young, Y. Zhou, 1995:   Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models.  Science,  267, 496-499.

Zhang, M. H., 1995: Assessment of the SAGE sampling strategy in the derivation of tropospheric water vapor in a general
circulation model.  Geophy. Res. Lett., 22, 1353-1356.

Zhang, M. H., J. T. Kiehl, and J. J. Hack, 1995:  Cloud-radiative feedback as produced by different parameterizations of cloud
emissivity in the NCAR CCM2.  In Climate Sensitivity to Radiative Perturbations: Mechanisms and Validation, Edited by Le
Truet, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 34, 213-228,  Springer-Verlag.

Kiehl, J, T., J. J. Hack, M. H. Zhang, and R. D. Cess, 1995: Sensitivity of a GCM climate to enhanced shortwave cloud
absorption.  J. Climate,  8, 2200-2212.

Chen, M. H., R. D. Cess, and M. H. Zhang, 1995: Effects of longwave cloud forcing anomalies on the atmospheric response to
equatorial Pacific SST anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 13,791-13810.

Zhang, M. H., J. J. Hack, J. T. Kiehl  and R. D. Cess, 1994:  Diagnostic study of climate feedback processes in atmospheric
general circulation models. J. Geophy.  Res.,  99,  5525-5537.

Randall, D., R. D. Cess,  J. P. Blanchet, S. Chalita, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, E. Keup, A. A. Lacis, H. Le
Treut, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J. Morcrette, P. M. Norris, G. L. Potter, L. Rikus,  E.
Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1994: Analysis of snow feedbacks in fourteen general circulation models.  J.  Geophy. Res.,   99, 20,757-20,771.

Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, T. Y. Kwon, and M. H. Chen, 1994: Approaches of comparison for clear-sky radiative-fluxes from
general circulation models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data. J . Geophy. Res.,  99,  5515-5523.

Cess, R. D, G. L. Potter, M. H. Zhang, J. P. Blanchet, S. Chalita, R. A. Colman, D. A. Dazlich, A. D. Del Genio, V. Dimnikov,
V. Galin, D. Jerrett, E. Keup, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, X. Z. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. J.
Morcrette, P. M. Norris, D. A. Randall,  L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin, J. M. Slingo, A. P.
Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M. Washington, R. T. Wetherald, and I. Yagai, 1991:  Interpretation of snow-climate feedback as
produced by 17 general circulation models.  Science,   253, 888-892.

Cess, R. D., G. L .Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, A. D. Del Genio, M. Deque, V. Dimnikov, V. Galin, W. L. Gates, S. J.
Ghan,  J. T. Kiehl, A. A. Lacis, H. Le Treut, Z. X. Li, X. Z. Liang,  B. J. McAvaney, V. P. Meleshko, J. F. B. Mitchell, J. J.
Morcrette,  L. Rikus,  E. Roeckner, J. F. Royer, U. Schlese, D. A. Sheinin,  A. Slingo, A. P. Sokolov, K. E. Taylor, W. M.
Washington, R. T. Wetherald, I. Yagai,  and M. H. Zhang, 1990: Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback
processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models. J.  Geophys. Res.,  95,  16601-16615.

Dynamics and Predictability

Zeng, Q.C., and M. H. Zhang,  2000: Wave-mean flow interaction: the role of continuous-spectrum disturbances.  Advances in
Atmos. Sci., 17, No. 1, 1-17.

Zhang, M. H., and  Q. C. Zeng, 1999: Discrete spectra and continuous spectrum of the barotropic quasi-geostrophic model ­ Part
II, a clculation of meteorological data.  Advances in Atmos. Sci., 16, 487-506.

Hameed, S. and M. H. Zhang, 1998: Chaos and predictability of climate.  J. Chaos and Bifurcation, 7, 2881-2890.

Zhang, M. H., and Q. C. Zeng, 1997: Discrete and continuous spectra of the barotropic quasi-geostrophic vorticity model, Part I.  J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1910-1922.

Geller, M., W. Shen, M. H. Zhang, and W. W. Tan, 1997: Calculation of the stratospheric QBO for time-varying forcing. J.
Atmos. Sci., 54, 883-894.

Shen, W. X., M. A. Geller, and M. H. Zhang, 1996: Generalization of the effect of vertical shear of mean zonal flow on tropical
CISK-wave excitation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences,  53, 2166-2185.

Zhang, M. H.: Conditional instability of the second kind (CISK).  In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, Edited by S. H.
Schneider, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Franz, M., and M. H. Zhang, 1995:  Suppression and creation of chaotic behavior
in a periodically forced Lorenz system.  Physical Review  E,   52, 3558-3565.

Zhang, M. H., and M. A. Geller, 1994: Selective excitation of tropical atmospheric waves in wave-CISK: effect of vertical wind
shear. J.  Atmos. Sci.,  51,  353-368.
 

Back to Minghua Zhang's Home Page